Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
25 Jan 2017, 21:56:44 (11 months ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v2 v3  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the environment.
     7Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    68
    7 A new Trac environment is created using  [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
    8 {{{
     9Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     10
     11== Creating an Environment
     12
     13A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     14{{{#!sh
    915$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1016}}}
    1117
    12 `trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the
    13 database connection string (explained below).
     18`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1419
    15 === Some Useful Tips
    16  - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to
    17  the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18  the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository,
    19  although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     20=== Useful Tips
     21
     22 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
     23
     24 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    2025 
    21  - `initenv` when using svn repository does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     26 - `initenv` does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using optional the arguments to `initenv` you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//.
    2227
    23  - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported
    24  
    25  - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).
     28 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
    2629
    27  - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     30 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by specifying a configuration file at the time the environment is created, using the `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
    2831
    29 == Database Connection Strings ==
     32{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     33**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
    3034
    31 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and
    32 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends.  Preliminary
    33 support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10.  The default is
    34 to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
    35 file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
    36 [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     35This is a common beginners' mistake.
     36It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     37}}}
    3738
    38 === SQLite Connection String ===
     39== Database Connection Strings
     40
     41You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     42
     43Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     44
     45=== SQLite Connection String
     46
    3947The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    4048{{{
     
    4351where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    4452
    45 === PostgreSQL Connection String ===
    46 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    47 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    48 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    49 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     53=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     54
     55The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    5056{{{
    5157postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    5258}}}
    53 ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.''
    5459
    55 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     60If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    5661{{{
    5762postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    5863}}}
    5964
    60 On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
    61 either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     65On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    6266{{{
    6367postgres://user:password@/database
    6468}}}
     69
    6570or a specific one:
    6671{{{
     
    6873}}}
    6974
    70 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    71 `trac-admin initenv`.
    72 
    7375See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
    74 Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
    75 {{{
    76 createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
    77 createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    78 }}}
    79 When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
    80 
    81 Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
    82 {{{
    83 sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
    84 sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     76Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     77{{{#!sh
     78$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     79$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    8580}}}
    8681
    87 Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     82When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     83
     84Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     85{{{#!sh
     86$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     87$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     88}}}
     89
     90Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
    8891{{{
    8992postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
    9093}}}
    9194
    92 === MySQL Connection String ===
     95=== MySQL Connection String
    9396
    94 If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    95 different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL
    96 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    97 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     97The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
    9898{{{
    9999mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
    100100}}}
    101101
    102 == Source Code Repository ==
     102== Source Code Repository
    103103
    104 Since version 0.12, a single Trac environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository (like `type`, `url`, `description`).
     104A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed.
    105105
    106 In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
    107 You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components (which are otherwise still loaded)
    108 {{{
    109 [components]
    110 trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
    111 }}}
     106There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. A single repository can be specified when the environment is created by passing the optional arguments `repository_type` and `repository_dir` to the `initenv` command.
    112107
    113 For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    114 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    115 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    116 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     108== Directory Structure
    117109
    118 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
    119 {{{
    120 [trac]
    121 repository_type = svn
    122 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
    123 }}}
    124 
    125 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    126 {{{
    127 [trac]
    128 repository_type = svn
    129 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
    130 }}}
    131 
    132 == Directory Structure ==
    133 
    134 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     110An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    135111
    136112 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    137  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    138  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     113 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     114 * `files`
     115  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    139116 * `conf`
    140    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     117  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
    141118 * `db`
    142    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    143  * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates. '''''(since 0.11)'''''
    144  * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
    145  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs or single file plugins, since [trac:milestone:0.10 0.10])
    146  * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. '''''(since 0.11)'''''
    147    * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
    148 
    149 '''Caveat:''' ''don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.''
    150 
    151 This is a common beginners' mistake.
    152 It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    153 structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     119  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     120 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/chrome/site/...` URLs.
     121 * `log` - Default directory for log files, if `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     122 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     123 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     124  * `site.html` - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance.
    154125
    155126----
    156127See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide
    157